Logical Indicators

People who construct arguments will usually indicate to us what their conclusions and premises are. We call these "logical indicators." Logical indicators help to separate the premises from the conclusion. We discern two types of logical indicators: (1) conclusion-indicators and (2) premise-indicators. These provide us with clues to the structure of an argument. However, they are signals only, not infallible guarantees.

Below are lists of conclusion- and premise-indicators:

 

Conclusion-Indicators

therefore…

indicates that…

*thus…

suggests that…

*so…

permits us to conclude that…

*hence…

we may deduce (or infer) that…

*implies that…

brings us the conclusion that…

*consequently…

it must be the case that…

proves that…

bears out the point that…

entails that…

it follows that…

as a result…

leads me to believe that…

shows that…

accordingly…

*These are probably the most commonly used logical indicators.

 

Premise-Indicators

since…(1)

may be deduced from…

because…(2)

in that…

for…

given that…

for the reason that…

as shown by…

in view of the fact that…

as indicated by…

as indicated by…

owing to…

on the supposition that…

as is substantiated by…

assuming that…

inasmuch as…

  1. Except when 'since' denotes time, as in "I've been hungry since lunchtime."

  2. Except when 'because' denotes a cause, as in: "The window shattered because the molecular structure of glass expands in cold weather."